Mesothelioma is one of the deadliest cancers as it directly affects the lining of the lungs, heart, or abdomen. If this cancer, spreads then the 2-year survival rate can fall to as low as 17% and the 5-year survival rate is less than 1%! The overall 5-year survival rate for people with mesothelioma is only 10% because it is usually undetectable in the earlier stages and is usually diagnosed in the last stages. Conventional treatments for cancer like surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy have failed to completely eliminate cancer. Although in the pursuit to fight colorectal cancer, several studies have been conducted on Annatto based Tocotrienol (Eannatto) which has been observed to possess anti-cancer activities. One such study, ‘The evidence to date: A redox-inactive analogue of Tocotrienol as a new anti-mesothelioma agent’ where pro-apoptotic effects of 6-O-carboxypropyl-alpha-Tocotrienol (T3E), a synthetic redox-inactive analogue of Tocotrienol were observed.
Antioxidants, especially Tocotrienol was observed to exhibit anti-cancer activity against Mesothelioma cancer cells.
Angiogenesis which is the process of formation of blood vessels in cancer cells like in your colon cancer promotes cancer cell death to a very great extent. T3E has been observed to inhibit downregulation of downstream targets: hypoxia-inducible factor – 2 Alpha (HIF – 2 Alpha) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The overall effect has been observed to suppress angiogenesis and proliferation.
Apoptosis is the programmed cell death which leads to the death of cancer cells. It has been observed that T3E induces apoptosis in mesothelioma HT28 cell through inhibition of Src and Src-independent STAT3.
Cell Proliferation is the process by which cancer cells copy their DNA and divide into several cancer cells during mitosis which leads to the spreading of cancer. T3E has been observed to exhibit anti-proliferative effects as it suppresses both the activity and expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase.
Cytotoxicity has been observed to be induced by T3E in human mesothelioma H2452 cells by abrogating cap-dependent translation complex formation through the inactivation of oncogene Ras.
Anti-carcinogenic property of T3E has been observed as it detained cobalt (II) chloride – induced VEGF expression by downregulating HIF – 2 Alpha signaling in mesothelioma cells.